Planning Instruction With Higher-Order Questioning
Cognitive scientists identify self-explanation as a factor in students’ ability to analyze and synthesize information. The Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice specifically expect students to develop skills in thinking and talking about their processes by constructing viable arguments and critiquing the reasoning of others (SMP 3) and reasoning abstractly and quantitatively (SMP 2).
When teachers’ organize their instruction to include the use of higher-order questioning strategies, they help engage in deeper thinking about concepts and processes, reflecting on contextual content, creating theories, speculating, and justifying their thinking. When students focus on the underlying concepts, they build a stronger foundation on which to build their problem-solving skills. Additionally, The explanations that students offer to higher-order questions also assist teachers in determining what students have understood or misunderstood about a particular concept.
The videos in this collection stress the importance of higher-order questions as a way to encourage students to explore the “whys” and “why nots,” develop deeper understandings, and strengthen their analytical skills. For more information on the importance of questioning, view the Pratice Guides Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8 and Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning
Enhancing performance through Higher Order Questioning and Explanation
These videos provide an introduction to higher-order questions and how the can work as part of intentional instruction.
Hal Pashler, chair of the expert panel that produced the IES Practice Guide on Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning, describes how research in cognitive psychology can help us understand and address common problems in teaching and learning.
Helping Students to Reflect on the Why’s
Asking the right question at the right moment is critical to guide students to deeper understanding. These videos speak to how higher order questions help students reflect on their process.